Heb 8:1-5 What are the four aspects of the main point the author has now established, and why is each significant to those who were in danger of falling away into the religio licita of the Jews? See Heb 8:1-2, 7:25, and note: the author will develop the “better sanctuary” in chapter 9. What was the gift and sacrifice that our high priest was appointed to offer (Heb 8:3, cf. Heb 5:1)? See Eph 5:2. How was His offering different from that offered by the high priests of Aaron’s priesthood? See Heb 7:27, 9:11-12,24-26, 10:11-12. What do Heb 8:4-5 indicate about the difference between Christ’s priesthood and that of Aaron? What was the significance of God’s command to Moses that the tabernacle was to be made “according to the pattern” shown him? What does the author mean that Aaron’s priesthood served a “copy” or “shadow” of the heavenly things? See Heb 9:22-23, 10:1, Col 2:16-17. Did the author consider the law of Moses with its physical tabernacle, animal sacrifices, and rituals for cleansing of the flesh to be the ultimate eternal reality? What is the substance of ultimate eternal reality? Cf. Rom 14:17.
Heb 8:6-13 What three things does the author enumerate in Heb 8:6 that are superior to the religio licita of the Jews to which the readers were in danger of falling away? How are they intimately related? Cf. Heb 9:11-15a. Consider some of the promises under the old covenant: Ex 15:26, Deut 7:12-15, 28:1-14; what does Heb 8:6 say about the promises of the new covenant? In what way do the promises of the new covenant mediated by the more excellent ministry of Jesus our great High Priest encompass and extend even beyond those of the old covenant? Cf. Mk 10:29-30. What are the better promises of the new covenant? See Heb 8:11-12, Tit 1:2, 2 Pet 1:3-4. Note: every covenant has terms that are to be obeyed by those entering into the covenant; what were the terms of the first covenant? See Deut 4:13-14, 23, 5:1-21. How do we know that the first covenant, as great and glorious as it was, was not without fault? See Heb 8:7-9. What are the terms of the new covenant, and how are they different from the terms of the old covenant? See Heb 8:10, cf. 2 Cor 3:6-11. As the priests under the old covenant mediated its terms to the people by teaching them the commandments and statutes of the law that had been written in stone, what are we to understand from Heb 8:10 about the present ministry of Jesus our High Priest and how He mediates the terms of the new covenant to us? Cf. Jn 16:7-8,13, Rom 8:4,9-14. What does Heb 8:13 teach us about the old covenant in light of the new? What does it mean to become obsolete? In what way has the computer made the typewriter obsolete, and how is that similar to the way the new covenant has made the old covenant obsolete? Note: “obsolete” when used in a passive sense (as it is the second time in Heb 8:13) means to wear out like an old garment as it is used in Heb 1:11 and Lk 12:33; again, what does this teach us about the old covenant in light of the new? Note: the Greek word for “disappear” is actually a noun form (i.e., lit. “near to a disappearance”) and occurs only here in the NT, but is used regularly throughout the LXX for “destruction” or “desolation”; cf. Mat 6:19-20 (“destroy”) Acts 13:41 (“perish”), and James 4:14 (“vanishes away”) for the verbal form in the NT. Considering that the Jewish temple was destroyed and hence the temple sacrifices ceased in 70 a.d., what does Heb 8:13 teach us about the date this letter was written? Consider those who did fall away at that time to the supposed safety of the legal religion of the Jews; how safe did it end up being? Describe the anxiousness of soul they must have felt to learn that that for which they had turned away from Christ had now “vanished away”. How is this similar to the anxiousness of soul that must eventually overtake all who turn away from Christ for the supposed safety of the world? Will friends, lovers, beauty, health and wealth likewise vanish away? Cf. Heb 10:26-31.