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Heb 13:10-14 What appeal of the Jewish ceremonial law were those being tempted by who were in danger of reverting to the legal religion of the Jews?  Cf. 1 Cor 9:13, 10:18.  How does the author counter that appeal?  See Heb 13:10.  In what way did Jesus’ better sacrifice parallel that of the sacrifices of the tabernacle which pointed toward Him?  See Heb 13:11-12.  What conclusion does the author draw for his readers in Heb 13:13 who were being tempted by the ceremonial law to revert to Judaism?  What is the reproach mentioned in Heb 13:13 that God’s people must bear when they “go out to Him outside the camp”?  See Heb 12:2, 11:26, Luk 9:23, Mat 27:39-44, Acts 5:41, 1 Pet 4:14-16.  Are we willing to take up our cross daily, despising its shame, and follow Christ outside of the gate, bearing His reproach, and join Him on the holy altar of Calvary, to become like Him in His death if somehow we might become like Him in His life?  In what ways and for what reason do those of the world seek to shame those who follow Christ in truth?  Why should we not allow ourselves to be shamed in such manner?  See Luke 9:26.  What encouragement does the author give in Heb 13:14 that we should always remember when the world shames us?  Cf. Heb 11:9-10,16.  In what way were the author’s words in Heb 13:14 prophetic?  Note: consider that this letter was written shortly before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 a.d.

Heb 13:15-16 What do these verses teach us is the new covenant counterpart of the old covenant sacrifices?  What is the significance of “continually” in Heb 13:15 to the old covenant sacrifices?  See Ex 29:38-42, Num 28:10,15,23,24, etc…  What is the significance in light of Bible prophecy of the current secularization of culture that seeks to forbid any public expression of faith, even a simple confession of His name or prayer in His name?  See Dan 8:11-13, 11:31, 12:11.  In contrast to the blood of bulls and goats under the old covenant, with what sacrifices is God well pleased under the new covenant?  See Heb 13:16, Mic 6:6-8.  Note: “sharing” is the Greek word koinwni,a, which is used twice for a financial “contribution”, but is translated most frequently as fellowship, communion, or participation; cf. KJV “communicate”; is the sacrifice of “sharing” that is pleasing to God only financial?  Cf. Acts 2:42-47.  What does this teach us about what it means to fellowship or be in communion with other believers?

Heb 13:17        Who are the “leaders” to whom the author would have his recipients submit themselves and be obedient?  See Heb 13:24, cf. 1 Cor 16:15-16, 1 Thess 5:12-13.  Do most churchgoers in America today heed this admonition?  Is this a reflection upon them, or upon their leaders, or both?  Cf. Jer 5:30-31.  What is the difference between church leadership and the leadership found in the world?  See Mat 20:25-28.  For what purpose are God’s people to obey their spiritual leaders and submit to them?  Is Heb 13:17 a command for blind obedience to religious leadership?  See Acts 4:5-6,19, 5:28-29.  What does this verse teach us about the important roles that both the people of God and their leaders have in the Lord’s chain of command?

Heb 13:18-19 What do these verses indicate about the author’s circumstances at the time of writing?  How might Heb 13:18 indicate that the author’s character and integrity were under attack?  Does the prospect of him being restored to them “the sooner” by their prayers agree with the traditional view that Paul was writing this as a prisoner from Rome after persecution by the state had broken out?  See 2 Tim 4:7-8.

Heb 13:20-21 What is meant by the “eternal” or “everlasting” covenant?  See 2 Sam 23:1-5, 1 Ch16:15-18, Is 55:3, Jer 32:39-40, Ez 37:24-28.  What is the prayer of the author for his readers in this benediction?  Note: NASB “equip” = KJV “make you perfect”, and carries the nuance of “mend” or “restore”.

Heb 13:22-25 Although the author was unknown to us, was he unknown to the original recipients?  See also Heb 13:18.  What do Heb 13:23-24 indicate about the author, his recipients, and the time and place of writing?  Note: the author must have been acquainted with both Timothy and was writing to others who were also acquainted with Timothy, which argues for a location in Galatia, Asia, Macedonia or Greece where we know Timothy to have ministered.  The fact that Timothy was “released” argues for a time after the events recorded in Acts and the Pastoral epistles, neither of which give any indication that Timothy was ever imprisoned.  “Those from (apo) Italy” most naturally refers to those who were from, but no longer in, Italy, since the main force of the preposition is to denote separation.  Hence the author was most likely in the company of Christians who were from Italy, but had fled from there due to the mounting persecutions.

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